had consecutively been a prosperous kingdom for 417 years. There had
been 33 kings who reigned the kingdom over that period, beginning with
King Uthong in 1893 B.E. The kingdom's glorious time ended when it succumbed
to Burmese troops on 7th April 2310 B.E., concluding 5 dynasties that
used to reign the kingdom of Ayutthaya, namely Chiang Rai, Suwannbhuma,
Pra Ruang, Prasat Tong, and Ban Plu Luang dynasty."
Ayutthaya's prosperity and beauty in foreigners' points of view
Jose Santen, a Dutch trader who came to trade in Ayutthaya (Portugal was the first European nation that came to Ayutthaya, during the reign of King Ramathibodi II, in 2034-2072 B.E) had written to describe the prosperity and beauty of Ayutthaya as below;
"Pra Nakorn Sri Ayutthaya is the capital city in which the king lives, and so do the nobles, officials, and all administrators.
The capital city is situated on a small island in Chao Praya River. Its surrounding area is a flat field. The stone wall was constructed to surround the city with 2 Dutch miles circumference. So it is a very big capital city. Its vicinity consists of many immediate Buddhist monasteries. The population is dense in the capital. There are long, wide and straight aligned roads. There are canals that are converted from Chao Praya River to the capital. So it is very convenient for transportation. Besides the roads and canals, there are also small ditches and alleyways. So, in the rainy season, people can easily travel to houses. The houses are built in Indian styles but roofed with tiles. Ayutthaya is therefore a luxurious city packed with over 300 Buddhist monasteries exquisitely built. There many are pagodas, topes, molded figures, and statues that are coated with gold brightening the whole area. The capital city situates on the riverbank and the city plan was orderly planned, so it is a very beautiful city. Its location is good, its population is dense, and it is a good trading area both domestic and foreign trade. As far as I am aware, there has not been any king in this region has ever reigned the beautiful and prosperous city as Ayutthaya. The city is on a very good location, regarding the militarily strategies, so it is very difficult for the enemy to impregnate because the surrounding area will be flooded for 6 months annually in the rainy season. The enemy cannot stay for a long time, so they will eventually retreat."
The history of the kings' reign and the brief story of events
King Ramathibodi I or King Uthong established Ayutthaya as a capital on 3rd April 1893 B.E. King Uthong was in Chiang Rai Dynasty. He reigned Ayutthaya until 1912 B.E. After the king's death, his son, Prince Ramesuan, who was reigning Lop Buri, had succeeded the throne during 1912-1913 B.E. But Prince Khun Luang Pa ngua wished to claim the throne, Prince Ramesuan therefore gave up the throne and returned to reign Lop Buri.
Khun Luang Pa ngua reigned Ayutthaya
in the name of King Borom Rajatiraj I. He was the first person of Suwannabhuma
dynasty and reigned the kingdom from 1913 B.E. to 1931 B.E., the year
he passed away. His son, Prince Thong Lun, then came to the throne at
the age of 15 years old. He reigned Ayutthaya for only 7 days before
he was assassinated by Prince Ramesuan who returned to the city.
King Ramesuan reigned Ayutthaya from 1931 to 1938 B.E. and he was the leader who took the troop to impregnate the kingdom of Cambodia.
King Ram Rajathiraj, a son of king Ramesuan, came to the throne after his father from 1938 B.E. until 1952 B.E., the year that there was the first fight to take over the throne. Suphanburi ruler who was the nephew of Khun Luang Pa Ngua assassinated King Rama Rajathiraj then took the throne and named King Nakarindhrajathiraj.
King Nakarindhrajathiraj reigned Ayutthaya from 1952 to 1967 B.E. He had three sons; prince Ai Praya, the eldest son who ruled Suphanburi; prince Yi Praya, the second son who ruled San; and prince Sam Praya, the youngest son who ruled Chai Nat. When King Nakarindhrajathiraj died, the three sons took their troops to Ayutthaya willing to take the throne. The first son and the second son fought each other Pa Tan Bridge and they both got killed on their own elephants' back. The third son who arrived later had conveniently entered Ayutthaya and reigned the kingdom in the name of King Boroma Rajathiraj II.
King Boromarajathiraj II reigned Ayutthaya from 1967 to 1991 B.E. he had a son, prince Ramesuan, who ruled Pitsanulok, the capital of the northern cities. When the king died, the prince came to the throne and named King Boroma Triloknart.
King Boroma Triloknart reigned Ayutthaya from 1991 to 2031 B.E.. Important events in this period was the battle with King Tilokaraj of Chiang Mai. The king established Pitsanulok as a capital and lived there from 2006 B.E. until he died. During his stay in Pitsanulok, he let his eldest son, prince Boromaraja, ruled Ayutthaya as a secondary city. At this period, there was a great improvement in administrative system to be a ministerial system namely; Wiang (the interior affairs), Wang (the military), Klang (the treasury), and Na (the agriculture). Also, the Buddhism was greatly supported and became remarkably properous.
King Boromarajathiraj III reigned from
2031 to 2034 B.E. He reestablished Ayutthaya as a capital after he became king,
the successor of his father. He died after he reigned only for 3 years. His
younger brother then came to the throne and named King Ramathibodi II.
King Ramathibodi II reigned Ayutthaya from
2034 to 2072 B.E. During this time, an important event was that there was the
first contact from Portugal willing to trade. Also, at this period, the treatise
of War was written . When the king died, his son was the throne successor and
named King Boromaraja Mahanor Budhangura.
King Boromaraja IV (Nor Budhangura) reigned
only 5 years (2072 to 2076 B.E) before he died because of smallpox fever. Prince
Rutdathirajkumara came to the throne at the age only 5 years old.
Prince Rutdathirajkumara reigned only 5 months before he was assassinated by Prince Chairajathiraj, who later claimed the throne.
King Chairajathiraj reigned from 2077 to 2090 B.E. During this period, the kingdom fought Burma for the first time and the fighting continued to happen for over 300 years. After the king died, Prince Kaew Fah who was the eldest son, aged 11 years old, immediately became the successor.
King Kaew Fah reigned from 2090
to 2091 B.E. under administrative control of Sri Sudachan, the king's
mother. An important event during this period was that Sri Sudachan
had affair with noble Butri Tepa and promoted him to be noble Wora.
She then gave birth to her child. King Kaew Fah was later assassinated.
Noble wora, Sri Sudachan, and her child were caught and killed at Sra
Bua canal by Noble Pirentaratepa. Prince Tian Raja who was a brother
of King Chairajathiraj was then persuaded to give up his monkhood and
offered the throne. He became the king named Maha Chakapat. Noble Pirentaratepa,
member of Sukhothai dynasty, was also promoted to be a viceroy name
king Maha Dhamaraja.
King Maha Chakapat firstly reigned
from 2091 to 2106 B.E. and secondly reigned from 2111 to 2112 B.E. He
gave his daughter, born from Queen Sri Suriyothai, to be a queen of
king Thamaraja who was appointed to reign Pitsanulok. There was another
fight with Burma at which queen Suriyothai was killed in the battle,
on the back of her elephant, at Pu Kao Tong (golden mountain) field
in 2091 B.E. only 6 months after they came to the throne.
pagoda of queen Suriyothai
The Burmese lost King Prae, which caused
them change of king. King Bayinnaung then became the King of Burma. There was
a heavy battle between Thai and Burmese. King Mahachakapat gave up his throne
and went to monkhood. He let prince Mahindhrathiraj to take the throne as his
King Mahindhrathiraj reigned the kingdom
from 2106 to 2111 B.E and secondly reigned. In 2112 B.E., King Bayinnaung of
Burma lead his army to besiege Ayutthaya. King Mahindhrathiraj then begged his
father to return to the throne and to be an army commander in chief. Ayutthaya
lost in this battle because of the betrayal, Praya Charkree, was a spy for the
Burmese army.Burmese army besieged Ayutthaya for a mounth until nearly the rainy
season.Ayutthaya lost on Sunday the eleventh day waning moon in the nineth month,August
2112 B.E., only 20 days before the surrounding area will be flooded.
King Mahadhamarajathiraj reigned from 2112 to 2133 B.E., the period that Ayutthaya was a colony to Burma. The king had a daughter, Princess Supankallayanee, and two sons, Prince Naresuan and Prince Ekatossarot. King of Burma (Hongsawadee) took Princess Supankallayanee and Prince Naresuan to Burma as hostages since Prince Naresuan was 9 years old. Prince Naresuan returned to Ayutthaya when he was 15 years old in order to become the ruler of Pitsanulok. On May 3rd, 2127 B.E., Pince Naresuan declared independence for Ayutthaya in city of Graeng, after 15 years of being colonial kingdom. King Mahadhamaraja passed away in 2133 B.E.
Yai Chai Mon Kon
King Naresuan reigned Ayutthaya from 2133 to 2148. The was another great battle between Thai and Burmese on 25th January 2135 B.E. called a war elephant (a hand-to-hand combat on the elephants' back). Prince Mahauparaja (the Burmese crown Prince) was killed on his elephant's back. This incident caused the Burmese dare not to fight with Thai for a hundred years. King Naresuan died in 2148 B.E.
King Ekatossarot reigned Ayutthaya from 2149 to 2163 B.E. This was a peaceful period. There were many contacts to neighboring countries both diplomatic and trades.
Prince Sri Saowapak, the king's son, was the immediate successor to his father in 2163 B.E. But his younger brother gave up the monkshood, assassinated the king, and then claimed the throne. He was named King Songdhama.
King Songdhama reigned from 2163 to 2172 B.E. At this period, there were trades with European countries, the Mon Dop (a square structures with four arches) was constructed to cover the Pra Buddha Bata (Buddha's footprint). After the king died, Prince Chettathiraj, the king's eldest son, came to the throne.
King Chettathiraj reigned only from 2171 to 2172 B.E. He was suspicious of the military minister, Suriyawong, because it was believed that Suriyawong was a secret son of King Ekatossarot and Ms Inbata Boricharika whom the king Ekatossarot visited during his trip to Bang Pa-in. King Chettathiraj then commanded to seize minister Suriyawong. But the commanded was leaked to minister Suriyawong. He then caught and assassinated the king. Minister Suriyawong then proposed Prince Atitayawong, the youngest son of King Song Dhama, who was only 9 years old to be the king's successor.
While King Atitayawong reigned in 2172 B.E., the ministry agreed that he was to young and relived the king. They then promoted military minister to be the next king named King Prasat Thong
King Prasat Thong reigned from 2172 to 2199. In this period, there were extensive contacts with western countries. Also the kingdom expanded the power to rule over Cambodia. After the king died, his son, Prince Chai, had taken the throne.
King Chai reigned less than a year before his throne was taken over by Prince Sri Sudhamaraja and Prince Narai, the other son of King Prasat Thong.
King Sri Sudhamaraja reigned only 3 months
in 2199 B.E. before there was a civil war against Prince Narai. Prince Narai
killed the king and then successfully took over the throne.
King Narai the great reigned from 2199 to 2231 B.E. of which there were most trade contacts with western nations. King Narai established Lopnuri as the capital. After he died, there was a war to take the throne. Prince Pate Raja won the war so he became the King.
King Pate Raja reigned from 2231 to 2246
B.E. His former family was Ta Oun Ya Chang that was a member of Ban Plu Luang
Dynasty, which was the last dynasty before Ayutthaya was burnt down by the Burmese
army. Noble Luang Sorasak was then the viceroy. After the king died, there was
again a war to take the throne. Noble Luang Sorasak later came to the throne
and named King Sri Sanpetch IIX.
King Sri Sanpetch IIX (Pra Chao Sua) reigned from 2246 to 2252 B.E.. He died after his 6 years in the throne. Then his son, Prince Tai Sa, bacame the king's immediate successor.
King Tai Sa reigned from 2252 B.E. to 2275 B.E. At nearly the end of his reign, there was a conflict between his sons, Prince Porn and Prince Apai. After the king died, there was a civil war willing to take the throne. Prince Apai lost the war so he was then killed. Prince Porn therefore became the immediate king named King Boromakot.
King Boromakot reigned from 2276 to 2301 B.E. He had 3 sons;
Prince Dhamatibet, promoted as a Crown
Prince; Prince Anurakmontri; and Prince Porn Pinit. Prince Dhamatibet made mistake
by having an affair with his father concubine. He was punished by being flogged
until he died. At nearly the end of King Boromakot's reign, the king gave up
the throne to Prince Pornpinit while Prince Anurakmontri,the oldest son was
previously forced to be in the monkshood . After the king died, Prince Pornpinit
came to the throne and named King Utoomporn. He was generally known as Khun
Luang Ha Wat
King Uthoomporn reigned for only 19 days.
Prince Anurakmontri then gave up the monkshood. The king then gave the throne
to him and then went to the monkshood at Wat Pra Du Song Dhama. Prince Anurakmontri,
who was once mentioned by his father as "a dumb person that does not deserve
to be a king", at last came to the throne named King Suriyamarindhara.
(King Ekkatat) reigned from 2301 to 2310 B.E. During his reign, many
nobles who were dissappointed with his incapability had left the administrative
positions and headed for the monkshood. At nearly the end of 2308 B.E.,
the Burmese observed the chaos happening in Ayutthaya and made decision
to intrude the kingdom. They beat all the cities on the way and finally
made their way to besiege Ayutthaya. King Ekkatat was not capable of
either administration or battle. He then asked Prince Uthoomporn to
reign and command in the battle. King Ekkatat later wished to reign
again and that annoyed Prince Uthoomporn and he then gave up and went
to the monkshood once again. King Ekkatat was so obsessed in entertainment
and occupied with pleasure of women. He did not take care of his ruling
duty. The Burmese besieged the capital city of Ayutthaya for 1 year
and 2 months. They excavated the tunnel and burnt down the city walls.
The Burmese army managed to enter Ayutthaya vicinity on 7th April 2310
B.E. It was Tuesday, the fifth month, the ninth night of the waxing
moon. It was the year of the pig, year 1129 (1767 A.D.). The Burmese
army robbed and killed the people, burnt down all the town structures
and buildings. Ayutthaya finally came to an end of its glorious politics,
influential cultures, and great prosperity. It could no longer be built
up to be the capital of Siam. That was the end of a long great history
of Ayutthaya. The cause of this destruction was mainly the lack of harmony
and conflicts for only self-interests among Thais.
The Kings who used to reigne Ayutthaya
There were 33 kings who used to reign Ayutthaya during its 417 years lasting. The names are as follows (the year is illustrated in the Buddhist Era : B.E.);
1. Chiang Rai Dynasty 3 Kings
King Ramatibodi I
|| 2st King
King Rama Rajatiraj
|| 5st King
2. Suwanabhuma Dynasty 13 Kings
King Boromarajatirat I
|| 3rd King
|2) King Lun
|| 4th King
|3) King Nakorn Indhratiraj
|4) King Boromarajatiraj
|| 7th King
|5) King Bormatriloknat
|| 8th King
|6) King Boromarajatiraj
|| 9th King
|7) King Ramatibodi II
|| 10th King
|8) King Boromarajatibodi
|| 11th King
|| 12th King
|10) King Chairajatiraj
|| 13th King
|11) King Yod Fah
|12) King Mahachakapat
|| 15th King
|13) King Mahindhrathiraj
3. Pra Ruang Dynasty
|1) King Mahadhamarajathiraj
|| 17th King
|2) King Naresuan the
|| 18th King
|3) King Ekatossarot
|| 19th King
|4) King Srisaowapak
|| 20th King
|5) King Songdhama
|| 21st King
|6) King Chettatiraj
|| 22nd King
|7) King Atitayawong
|| 23rd King
4. Prasat Thong Dynasty
|1) King Prasat Thong
|2) King Chao Fah Chai
|| 25th King
|3) King Sri Sudhamaraja
|| 26th King
|4) King Narai the great
|| 27th King
5. Ban Plu Luang Dynasty
|1) King Pate Raja
|| 28th King
|2) King Sri San Petch
|| 29th King
(Pra Chao Sua)
|3) King Tai Sra
|| 30th King
|4) King Boromakot
|5) King Uthoomporn
|| (2301- )
|6) King Suriyamarindhara
|| 33rd King
here to see more pictures from Ayuthaya History Park
Some pictures pick up
HRH. The histories of dynasties; Royal writing version.. Bangkok. Odeon Store, 2495 B.E.
Boriharn Teptani, Pra. The history of Thailand Volume 2. Silpabannakarn, 2541 B.E.
Pramote Tassanasuwan. The face of Krung Sri Ayutthaya.
Bangkok: Siang Thai Publishing, 2522 B.E.
Ayutthaya. Bangkok : Sarakadee, 2538 B.E.
Translator : Aketawan Manowongsa
16 March 2002