are stories that have been told from generations to generations. They are
usually considered as cultural heritages. Mostly, stories are not recorded
but are told by speech.
tales are important for raising morality of people. Thus, they
draw a lot of attention from philosophers, humanists, students and researchers
in various areas. It is believed that tale telling began before history. Tales
have been popular among people everywhere - from kings to common people. There
is a story about how much angels love tales. Humans will be cursed if they
tell tales during the day because angels have to have an audience with Siva.
They cannot go to listen to tales.
differ among various parts of the world, the objectives of tale telling are
the same. One of the objectives is for entertaining. The other is religious
related. Religious have influences over humans' mind and a lot of tales are
based on faiths of people. (Kularb Mullikamas 1966:
There are three common characteristics of classic tales,
1. They are told using common languages.
2. The stories have been told for a long time. They might be published later.
3. There are no evidences of who are the initial tellers. Tellers tell stories
as they heard. (Pirod Lerdpiriyakamol 1969: 7)
Classification of Tales
People who study
tales attempt to classify them for ease of study. There are various ways of
tale classification, for example:
Classified by Region - Tales are classified by the location that they
are told such as India, Islamic countries, Jew territory in Asia Minor.
Classified by category of tales - such as:
Folk Tales such as tales about phenomena, faiths, heroisms, priesthoods, lost
treasures and moralities
Tales about Animals - such as morality tales and endless tales
Classified by types of tales - Tales are classified like the classification
by category of tales but are sorted in more details
Classified by Gist - This considers the elements of tales for classification
and is the best way to classify tales
This text will classify tales by category since it is the most popular method
and easy to understand.
Dirty Tales (Thai east northern)